Adipocinas e sua relação com a obesidade

Nágila Isleide da Silva, Hermínio Maurício da Rocha Sobrinho, Graziela Torres Blanch, Wilson Melo Cruvinel, Clayson Moura Gomes

Resumo


A obesidade comumente é associada com outras doenças como: hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus tipo II, cardiovasculares e inflamação crônica. Estudos demonstram o tecido adiposo (TA) como um órgão endócrino capaz de influenciar a homeostase energética e hemodinâmica, além de ter papel importante na resposta inflamatória. O termo adipocina é utilizado para nomear peptídeos bioativos sintetizados e secretados por adipócitos. O interesse em estudar essas proteínas teve início com a descoberta da leptina e suas diversas funções, hoje já sabemos que o TA secreta outros hormônios, proteínas de fase aguda, quimiocinas, fatores hemostáticos e hemodinâmicos e fatores de crescimento. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os principais grupos de adipocinas visando uma maior compreensão de seus mecanismos de ação, das finalidades e influências no desenvolvimento da obesidade e estado de inflamação crônica. Foi observado que essas adipocinas em desequilíbrio promovem impacto em diversas funções corporais, alterando a ingesta alimentar, sensibilidade à insulina, resposta imune, angiogênese, pressão arterial, metabolismo lipídico e balanço energético. Dessa maneira se faz necessária uma compreensão dos efeitos do tratamento como atividade física, nutrição, aspecto psicológico e clínica sobre o controle hormonal e de citocinas, a fim de se desenvolver terapias mais eficazes, diminuindo as complicações da obesidade.

Palavras-chave


Adipocinas; Leptina; Adiponectina; Resistina; Obesidade

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Global Health Observatory (GHO). Acesso em 17/09/2018. Disponível em: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/overweight_obesity/obesity_adults/en/

ISRAEL, P. & LIRA, C. 2013. Prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors among individuals 25 to 59 years of age in Pernambuco State , Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública 29: 313–324.

PINEHIRO, A.R.O., FREITAS, S.F.T & CORSO, A.C.T. 2004. An epidemiological approach to obesity. Revista de Nutrição 17: 523–533.

CAO, H. 2014. Adipocytokines in obesity and metabolic disease. The Journal of endocrinology 220 (2): 47–59.

WAJCHENBERG, B. L. 2000. Tecido adiposo como glândula endócrina. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia 44 (1): 13-20.

PROENCA, A.R.G., SERTIE, R.A.L., OLIVEIRA, A.C., CAMPAÃA, A.B., CAMINHOTTO, R.O., CHIMIN, P., LIMA, F.B. 2014. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research 47: 192–205.

KRYSIAK, R., HANDZLIK-ORLIK, G. & OKOPIEN, B. 2012.The role of adipokines in connective tissue diseases. European journal of nutrition 51: 513–28.

PAZ-FILHO, G.; WONG, M. L. & LICINIO, J.2011. Ten years of leptin replacement therapy. Obesity Reviews 12: 501.

FDA. U.S. 2014. Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Myalept to treat rare metabolic disease. Acesso em: 19/09/2018 Disponível em: https://nordiclifescience.org/fda-approves-myalept-to-treat-rare-metabolic-disease/

IGNACIO, D.L. & TAMAR, G.P. 2009. Regulação da massa corpórea pelo estrogênio e pela atividade física. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia 53: 310-317.

KIM, J. Y., AHN, S. V., YOON, J. H., YOO, B.S., LEE, S.H., PARK, J.K., CHOE, K.H., GUALLAR, E. 2013. Prospective study of serum adiponectin and incident metabolic syndrome: The ARIRANG study. Diabetes Care 36: 1547–1553.

SILVEIRA, M.R., FROLLINI, A. B., VERLENGIA, R., & CAVAGLIERI, C.R. 2009. Correlação entre obesidade, adipocinas e sistema imunológico Correlation between obesity, adipokines and the immune system. Revista Brasileira Cineantropometria Desempenho Humano 11: 466-472.

SUPRIYA, R., TAM, B.T., YU, A.P., LEE, P.H., LAI. C.W., CHENG, K.K., YAU, S.N., CHAN, L.W., YUNG, B. Y., SHERIDAN, S. & SIU, P.M. 2018. Adipokines demonstrate the interacting influence of central obesity with other cardiometabolic risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Plos One 13: 1–20.

OLIVER, P., PICÓ, C., SERRA, F. & PALOU, A. 2003. Resistin expression in different adipose tissue depots during rat development. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 252: 397–400.

ZHANG, L., CURHAN, G.C. & FORMAN, J.P. 2010.Plasma resistin levels associate with risk for hypertension among nondiabetic women. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 21: 1185–1191.

SURGERY, R. & SURGERY, L. 2017 Expression of resistin in the liver non - alcoholic fatty liver disease of patients with non-alcolic fatty disease. Polish Journal Pathology 68: 225–33.

SETHI, J.K. & VIDAL-PUIG, A. 2005.Visfatin: The missing link between intra-abdominal obesity and diabetes? Trends in Molecular Medicine 11: 344-7.

ARNER, P. 2006. Visfatin--a true or false trail to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 91: 121-127.

YANG, W., LI, Y., WANG, J-Y., HAN, R. & WANG, L. 2018. Circulating levels of adipose tissue-derived inflammatory factors in elderly diabetes patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a retrospective study. Cardiovascular Diabetology 17: 75.

BÄCKHED, F., DING, H., WANG, T., HOOPER, L.V., KOH, G.Y., NAGY, A., SEMENKOVICH, C.F., GORDON, J.I. 2004. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 15718–15723.

KIM, I., KIM, H. G., KIM, H., PARK, S.K., UHM, C.S., LEE, Z.H., KOH, G.Y. 2000. Hepatic expression, synthesis and secretion of a novel fibrinogen/angiopoietin-related protein that prevents endothelial-cell apoptosis. The Biochemical journal 346: 603–610.

IKEOKA, D., MADER, J.K. & PIEBER, T.R.2010. Adipose tissue, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 56: 116–121.

CIANFLONE, K., MASLOWSKA, M. & SNIDERMAN, A. D. 1999. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), an adipocyte autocrine: new directions. Seminars in cell & developmental biology 10: 31–41.

MUNKONDA, M. N., LAPOINTE, M., MIEGUEU, P., ROY, C., GAUVREAU, D., RICHARD, D., CIANFLONE, K. 2012. Recombinant acylation stimulating protein administration to C3-/- mice increases insulin resistance via adipocyte inflammatory mechanisms. PloS one 7: 46883.

PAN, H.-Y., GUO, L. & LI, Q. 2010.Changes of serum omentin-1 levels in normal subjects and in patients with impaired glucose regulation and with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes. Diabetes research and clinical practice 88: 29–33.

SOUZA B, C.M.; YANG, R.Z.; LEE, M.J., GLYNN, N.M., YU, D.Z., PRAY, J., NDUBUIZU, K., PATIL, S., SCHWARTZ, A., KLIGMAN, M., FRIED, S.K., GONG, D.W., SHULDINER, A.R., POLLIN, T.I., MCLENITHAN, J.C. 2007. Omentin plasma levels and gene expression are decreased in obesity. Diabetes 56: 1655–1661.

DRAY, C., KNAUF, C., DAVIAUD, D., WAGET, A., BOUCHER, J., BULÉON, M., CANI, P.D., ATTANÉ, C., GUIGNÉ, C., CARPÉNÉ, C., BURCELIN, R., CASTA-LAURELL, I., VALET, P. 2008. Apelin Stimulates Glucose Utilization in Normal and Obese Insulin-Resistant Mice. Cell Metabolism 8(5):437–445.

JUHAN-VAGUE, I. & ALESSI, M. C. 1997. PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 78: 656–660.

FONSECA-ALANIZ, M.H., TAKADA, J., ALONSO-VALE, M.I. C.& LIMA, F.B. 2006. O tecido adiposo como centro regulador do metabolismo. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia 50: 216–229.

NÉGREL, R., GAILLARD, D. & AILHAUD, G. 1989. Prostacyclin as a potent effector of adipose-cell differentiation. The Biochemical journal 257: 399–405.

BEKRI, S., GUAL, P., ANTY, R., LUCIANI, N., DAHMAN, M., RAMESH, B., IANELLI, A., STACCINI-MYX, A., CASANOVA, D., BEN AMOR, I., SAINT-PAUL, M.C., HUET, P.M., SADOUL, J.L., GUGENHEIM, J., SRAI, S.K., TRAN, A., LE MARCHAND-BRUSTEL, Y. 2006. Increased Adipose Tissue Expression of Hepcidin in Severe Obesity Is Independent From Diabetes and NASH. Gastroenterology 131: 788–796.

MATSUMOTO, T. & CLAESSON-WELSH, L. 2001. VEGF receptor signal transduction. Science’s STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment 112:21

CHALDAKOV, G.N., FIORE, M., HRISTOVA, M.G. & ALOE, L. 2003. Metabotrophic potential of neurotrophins:implication in obesity and related diseases? Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 9: 19–21.

HALVORSEN, Y.D.C., BURSELL, S.E., WILKISON, W.O., CLERMONT, A.C., BRITTIS, M., MCGOVERN, T.J., SPIEGELMAN. B.M. 1993. Vasodilation of rat retinal microvessels induced by monobutyrin: Dysregulation in diabetes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92: 2872–2876.

HOTAMISLIGIL, G.S., SHARGILL, N.S. & SPIEGELMAN, B.M. 1993. Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 259: 87–91.

ESTEVES, D., GUIMAR, D., SARDINHA, C., MIZURINI, D.M., CARMO, G.T. 2007. Adipokines : a new view of adipose tissue. Revista de Nutrição 20: 549–559.

SUPRIYA R., YUNG B.Y., YU AP, LEE PH, LAI C.W., CHENG K.K., YAU, S.Y., CHAN, L.W.C., SHERIDAN, S., SIU, P.M. 2018. Adipokine profiling in adult women with central obesity and hypertension. Frontiers in Physiology 9: 1–9

BASINSKA, K., MARYCZ, K., SMIESZEK & NICPON, J. 2015. The production and distribution of IL-6 and TNF- α in subcutaneous adipose tissue and their correlation with serum concentrations in Welsh ponies with equine metabolic syndrome. Journal of Veterinary Science 16: 113–120.

FAIN, J.N. 2006. Release of Interleukins and Other Inflammatory Cytokines by Human Adipose Tissue Is Enhanced in Obesity and Primarily due to the Nonfat Cells. Vitamins and Hormones 74: 443-77.

HAJER, G.R., HAEFTEN, T. W. & VISSEREN, F.L.J. 2008. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases. European Heart Journal 29: 2959–71.

VOLP, A.C.P., ALFENAS, R.D.C.G., COSTA, N.M.B., MINIM, V. P. R., STRINGUETA, P.C., BRESSAN, J. 2008. Capacidade dos biomarcadores inflamatórios em predizer a síndrome metabólica: Inflammation biomarkers capacity in predicting the metabolic syndrome. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia 52: 537-549

CHOI, K.M., RYU, O.H., LEE, K.W., KIM, H.Y., SEO, J.A., KIM, S.G., KIM, N.H., CHOI, D.S., BAIK., S.H. 2007. Serum adiponectin, interleukin-10 levels and inflammatory markers in the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 75: 235–240.

MOCELLIN, S., PANELLI, M.C., WANG, E., NAGORSEN, D. & MARINCOLA, F.M. 2003. The dual role of IL-10. Trends in Immunology 24 :36-43.

OHSHIMA, K.. MOGI, M., JING, F., IEANAMI, J., TSUKUDA, K., MIN, L.J., HIGAKI, J., HORIUCHI, M. 2012. Roles of interleukin 17 in angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated insulin resistance. Hypertension. 59: 493–499.

HUNG, J., MCQUILLAN, B. M., CHAPMAN, C. M. L., THOMPSON, P. L. & BEILBY, J. P.2005. Elevated interleukin-18 levels are associated with the metabolic syndrome independent of obesity and insulin resistance. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 25: 1268–1273.

JUNG, U.J. & CHOI, M.-S. 2014. Obesity and Its Metabolic Complications: The Role of Adipokines and the Relationship between Obesity, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. International journal of molecular sciences 15: 6184–223.

TOURNIAIRE, F., ROMIER-CROUZET, B., LEE, J.H., MARCOTORCHINO, J., GOURANTON, E., SALLES, J., MALEZET, C., ASTIER, J., DARMON, P., BLOUIN, E., WALRAND, S., YE, J., LANDRIER, J. 2013 Chemokine Expression in Inflamed Adipose Tissue Is Mainly Mediated by NF-kB. Plos One, 8: 1–9.

HERDER, C., BAUMERT, J., THORAND, B., KOENIG, W., JAGER, W., MEISINGER, C., ILIQ, T., MARTIN, S., KOLB, H. 2006. Chemokines as risk factors for type 2 diabetes: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study, 1984-2002. Diabetologia 49: 921–929.

LOFRANO, M.C., OYAMA, L.M., DÂMASO, A.R. 2009. Obesidade e Adipocinas Inflamatórias : Implicações Práticas para a Prescrição de Exercício. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 15:378–383.

FUENTES, E., FUENTES, F., VILAHUR, G., BADIMON, L. & PALOMO, I. 2013. Mechanisms of chronic state of inflammation as mediators that link obese adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome. Mediators of inflammation 2013:136584.

CAO, H. 2014. Adipocytokines in obesity and metabolic disease. The Journal of endocrinology 220: 47–59.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18224/evs.v46i1.7179

Rodapé - Educativa
 

Este obra está licenciada com uma Licença Creative Commons - Atribuição Sem Derivações 4.0 CC BY-NC-ND


EVS | Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás | e-ISSN 1983-781X | Qualis B3

Visitantes - (05/09/2017 - 21/10/2019)
País Usuários
Brasil 51.961
Estados Unidos 1.284
Portugal 818
França 246
Moçambique 238
Angola 171
Reino Unido 61
México 61
Espanha 60

Fonte: Google Analytics.